This Is the Worst President of All Time, According to Historians

Each leader from George Washington to Donald Trump was ranked based on a broad set of criteria.

Being elected to the highest office in the land is a job that comes with immense responsibility. Whether it was guiding the U.S. through its earliest days of independence, attempting to reunite a nation torn apart by the Civil War, weathering financial crises, or avoiding escalating conflict during the Cold War, every commander in chief has tackled obstacles and made decisions that form their legacy. But just like any job—and in many ways, more than any other job—how they handle their time in office is open to analysis and criticism, including the former presidents who performed poorly enough to be considered among the worst to ever sit in the Oval Office.

A recent survey of 142 presidential historians conducted by C-SPAN continued the tradition of ranking former executives based on a wide range of criteria. Each respondent issued a score from 1 (meaning "not effective") to 10 (meaning "very effective") in 10 categories that encompass presidential leadership: crisis leadership, public persuasion, economic management, moral authority, international relations, administrative skills, pursuing equal justice for all, relations with congress, vision or setting an agenda, and their performance within the context of the times. The average of each president's responses was then added to rank them overall, with each category given equal weighting.

New questionnaires are issued at the beginning of every new administration so that only former presidents are included in the rankings, meaning you won't see current President Joe Biden on this list. The latest survey also invited dozens more respondents to participate so as to create "new diversity in race, gender, age and philosophy" in the results, C-SPAN said. (Here is a full list of the historians surveyed.)

Each time the survey is conducted, presidents rise and fall among the ranks, and this year is no different. With everything considered from impeachment to landing on the moon, here is every former president of the United States ranked from best to worst, according to historians.

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1
Abraham Lincoln

abraham lincoln, amazing coincidences
Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Final score: 897

2
George Washington

George Washington
Shutterstock

Final score: 851

3
Franklin D. Roosevelt

fdr bobby kennedy
Alamy

Final score: 841

4
Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt
Shutterstock

Final score: 785

5
Dwight D. Eisenhower

Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower. 1952 portrait
Everett Collection Historical / Alamy Stock Photo

Final score: 734

6
Harry S. Truman

harry truman success quotes
Alamy

Final score: 713

7
Thomas Jefferson

thomas jefferson, amazing coincidences
Shutterstock

Final score: 704

8
John F. Kennedy

US president John F. Kennedy after his arrival on 26 June 1963 for a four days visit in Germany adressing an enthusiastic crowd in Cologne.
dpa Fotografen/picture alliance via Getty Images

Final score: 699

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9
Ronald Reagan

President Ronald Reagan
Mark Reinstein / Shutterstock

Final score: 681

10
Barack Obama

Former President Barack Obama with the US flag in the background as he delivers a speech at a campaign rally for the presumptive democratic nominee in Charlotte.
Evan El-Amin / Shutterstock

Final score: 664

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11
Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson getting sworn in next to Jackie Kennedy Jackie Kennedy Pink Chanel Suit
Alamy

Final score: 654

12
James Monroe

A portrait of President James Monroe
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 643

13
Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson
Shutterstock

Final score: 617

14
William McKinley

A photo portrait of President William McKinley
Shutterstock

Final score: 612

15
John Adams

President John Adams
Shutterstock

Final score: 609

16
James Madison

James Madison
Shutterstock

Final score: 604

17
John Quincy Adams

u.s. president john quincy adams
Shutterstock

Final score: 603

18
James K. Polk

A portrait of president James Polk
Shutterstock

Final score: 599

19
William J. Clinton

Bill Clinton 90s
Joseph Sohm/Shutterstock

Final score: 594

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20
Ulysses S. Grant

President Ulysses S. Grant
Shutterstock

Final score: 590

21
George H. W. Bush

george h.w. bush
Shutterstock

Final score: 585

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22
Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson, by Thomas Sully, 1845, American painting, oil on canvas. This 1845 painting is based on a 1824 Thomas Sully a portrait of Andrew Jackson.
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 568

23
William Howard Taft

President William Howard Taft
Shutterstock

Final score: 543

24
Calvin Coolidge

President Calvin Coolidge. Ca. 1923-1928. From 1907 to 1920, Coolidge worked his way up Massachusetts State politics to election as Governor in 1918.
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 535

25
Grover Cleveland

Former President Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th US President in 1903 photo by Frederick Gutekunst.
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 523

26
Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter Famous People Who Used to be Teachers
Shutterstock

Final score: 506

27
James A. Garfield

President James Garfield
Shutterstock

Final score: 506

28
Gerald R. Ford

Gerald Rudolph Ford, born Leslie John Lynch, Nixon's Vice-President and 38th President of the United States of America (1973-1974) when Nixon resigned
Photo12/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

Final score: 498

29
George W. Bush

George W Bush
Shutterstock

Final score: 495

30
Chester A. Arthur

Chester Arthur, 21st President of the United States, (1881 - 1885).
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 472

31
Richard M. Nixon

Richard Nixon hottest celebrity the year you were born
National Archives and Records Administration

Final score: 464

32
Benjamin Harrison

President Benjamin Harrison sitting for a portrait
Shutterstock

Final score: 462

33
Rutherford B. Hayes

President Rutherford B. Hayes
Shutterstock

Final score: 456

34
Martin Van Buren

President Martin van Buren
Shutterstock

Final score: 455

35
Zachary Taylor

Zachary Taylor (1784-1850), U.S. President (1849-1850)
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 449

36
Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover
Library of Congress/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images

Final score: 396

37
Warren G. Harding

President Warren G Harding
Shutterstock

Final score: 388

38
Millard Fillmore

Millard Fillmore (1800-1874), U.s. President (1850-1853)
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 378

39
John Tyler

President John Tyler 1790-1862 succeeded William Harrison after his death from pneumonia. His landmark accomplishment the 1845 annexation of the Republic of Texas.
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 354

40
William Henry Harrison

President William Henry Harrison
Shutterstock

Final score: 354

41
Donald J. Trump

Donald Trump at a campaign rally in August 2018
Evan El-Amin / Shutterstock.com

Final score: 312

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42
Franklin Pierce

President Franklin Pierce
Shutterstock

Final score: 312

43
Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson, 17th President, ca. 1860s.
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 230

44
James Buchanan

James Buchanan
Everett Collection / Shutterstock

Final score: 227

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Zachary Mack
Zachary covers beer, wine, food, spirits, and travel. He's the owner of Alphabet City Beer Co. in New York City and is a Certified Cicerone. Read more
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